Askep Diabetes Mellitus

Friday, September 23, 2011 ·
Askep Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetes Mellitus

Definition

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood or hyperglycemia. (Brunner and Suddarth, 2002).

Diabetes Mellitus is a collection of symptoms that occur in a person caused by an increase in blood sugar (glucose) insulin deficiency of blood due to either absolute or relative (Arjatmo, 2002).


Classification

Classification of diabetes mellitus as follows:

1. Type I: insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
2. Type II: Diabetes mellitus is independent of insulin (NIDDM)
3. Diabetes mellitus associated with other conditions or syndromes
4. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)


Etiologi
  1. Diabetes Type I :
    • Genetic factors
      Do not inherit diabetes type I diabetes itself, but inherits a genetic predisposition or a tendency toward the occurrence of DM type I. This genetic predisposition is found in individuals with an HLA antigen types.
    • Immunological factors
      The existence of an autoimmune response which is an abnormal response in which antibodies directed against normal tissue by the body reacts to these networks is considered as if in a foreign network. Otoantibodi namely the cells of Langerhans islands and endogenous insulin.
    • Environmental Factors
      Viruses or certain toxins can trigger an autoimmune process that causes destruction selbeta.
  2. Diabetes Type II
    Precise mechanisms that cause insulin resistance and insulin secretion disorders in type II diabetes is still unknown. Genetic factors play a role in the process of insulin resistance.
    Risk factors :
    • Age (insulin resistance tended to increase at age above 65 years)
    • Obesity
    • Family history


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