The Big Risk Factors and Causes of Atrial Fibrillation

The Big Risk Factors and Causes of Atrial Fibrillation
If you had to guess what do you think is the most important muscle in the human body? Probably the heart right? Without the heart, blood can't get pumped to deliver oxygen and nutrients to organs and they would die. When someone has atrial fibrillation or AF for short, their heart pumps too fast and this can be unhealthy for a few reasons.

One of the big dangers is that it can create a blood clot. If the blood clot reaches the brain it can stop blood flow and this results in a stroke. Other dangers could be heart disease, fatigue, dizziness, chest pains and shortness of breath.

Even though humans have made so many discoveries on how the body operates, some things such as the exact cause of this condition still remain a mystery. The good news is that as a species we do know a few of the major risk factors for AF.

One of the big risk factors is heart disease. According to a study by the American Heart Association when a patient has heart failure it increases the chance of atrial fibrillation. If a patient has mild heart failure there is a 5% chance of them getting atrial fibrillation. If it's a moderate heart failure it can lead to a 10-25% chance of them getting this ailment. If it's severe they may have a 50% chance of getting atrial fibrillation.

Another culprit would be high blood pressure. The big danger with high blood pressure is that it can be a silent killer and often doesn't produce any symptoms. According to Dr. Michael Roizen who is the chief wellness officer at the Cleveland Clinic, he is also popular on the Dr. Oz Show.

High blood pressure causes changes to the heart's structure that makes it more likely to cause rapid, erratic heart beats. Also some experts feel that unhealthy blood pressure is the single biggest risk factor for Atrial Fibrillation.

The last huge risk factor to this disease is going to be age. According to the American Heart Association age is the single biggest risk factor for this condition. The reason for this is because the older someone gets the higher the chance of heart disease, and many other problems that can contribute to atrial fibrillation.

To sum everything up atrial fibrillation is when the heart beats too quickly and can cause blood clots, chest pains, fatigue and dizziness. Three big risk factors that cause this condition would be heart disease, high blood pressure and old age.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8747729

Chronic Pain Management

Our Recommendations For Coping With Your Chronic Pain:


Get Support from Family, Friends and Professionals

Having a positive and encouraging support system is very important when coping with chronic pain. Try to surround yourself with people who care about you and have your best interest at heart. Even if you are not comfortable talking to anyone about your condition, just having people around you that want what's best for you can be invaluable. It is also important to recognize when you may be able to benefit from professional guidance. Speaking with a therapist or psychologist about what you are experiencing may help you to lighten your load and to gain a new perspective on what you are going through.


Manage Your Stress

Managing the stresses of everyday life can be challenging, though it is extremely important to do so when coping with chronic pain. When you are stressed, even the littlest of tasks or the most minimal of activities can seem impossible. There are also many chronic conditions that are greatly exacerbated by stress, so it can actually make you physically feel worse. It is crucial to try your best to find a healthy way to handle stressful situations. Making time for your hobbies and the things you love to do is not only imperative to leading a balanced life, but it can give you something to look forward to in stressful situations and help to alleviate some of the overwhelming feelings you may be experiencing.


Be As Active As You Can

Many people believe that in order to truly experience the benefits of exercise, you need to work out to the extreme, this is not the case. Staying active to the extent that you are able will enhance your emotional and physical state in a positive way. Engage in an activity that makes you feel good, whether it is walking, jogging, biking or anything else you find rewarding. Yoga and meditation are also great activities that help to center yourself and restore balance and synchronicity to your body and mind.


Try To Stay Positive

Though it may be hard to think and act in a positive way when you are feeling anything but positive, multiple studies have shown that something as simple as smiling can actually make you feel happier. Though it may seem a little backwards to smile first and feel happy later, research is showing that this is a great way to feel better fast. As with smiling, the same goes for positive thinking in that making an effort to think happy thoughts will make you feel happier.

List of 2014 – 2015 Real Madrid Players

List of 2014 – 2015 Real Madrid Players
  1. GK :  Iker Casillas (captain)
  2. CB : Raphaël Varane
  3. CB : Pepe
  4. CB : Sergio Ramos (vice-captain)
  5. LB : Fábio Coentrão
  6. DM : Sami Khedira
  7. LW : Cristiano Ronaldo
  8. CM : Toni Kroos
  9. CF : Karim Benzema
  10. AM : James Rodríguez
  11. RW : Gareth Bale
  12. LB : Marcelo (vice-captain)
  13. GK : Keylor Navas
  14. CF : Javier Hernández 
  15. RB : Dani Carvajal
  16. RB : Álvaro Arbeloa
  17. CB : Nacho
  18. CM : Luka Modrić 
  19. LW : Jesé
  20. AM : Isco
  21. DM : Asier Illarramendi
  22. GK : Fernando Pacheco

Last updated: 20 September 2014
Source: RealMadrid.com

List of Hypertensive Heart Disease Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions

Nursing Care Plan for Hypertensive Heart Disease

Risk for Decrease Cardiac Output related to Hypertensive Heart Disease

Nursing Diagnosis : Risk for Decrease Cardiac Output related to increased afterload, vasoconstriction, myocardial ischemia, ventricular hypertrophy.

Goal : Want to participate in activities that lower blood pressure / cardiac workload.

Outcomes :
  • Blood pressure within an acceptable range of individuals.
  • Rhythm and heart rate stabilized in the normal range.

Interventions :
  1. Monitor vital signs.
  2. Note the presence, quality central and peripheral pulses.
  3. Heart tone auscultation, and breath sounds.
  4. Observe skin color, moisture, temperature, and capillary refill time.
  5. Note the general edema / certain.
  6. Provide a quiet and comfortable environment, reduce the activity / environment commotion, limit the number of visitors and length of stay.
  7. Maintain restrictions on activities such as rest in bed / chair ; schedule uninterrupted rest period ; help patients perform self-care as needed.
  8. Perform actions as comfortable as back and neck massage, tilt the head of the bed.
  9. Encourage relaxation techniques, imagination guide, transfer activity.
  10. Monitor response to medication to control blood pressure.

Rationale :
  1. Comparison of blood pressure gives a more complete picture of the involvement / field of vascular problems.
  2. Throbbing carotid, jugular, radial and femolaris probably observed / palpable. Pulse in the limbs may decrease, reflecting the effect of vasoconstriction (increased SVR) and venous congestion.
  3. S4 is commonly heard in patients with severe hypertension due to an increase in atrium volume / pressure. S3 shows the development of ventricular hypertrophy and malfunction, the presence of crackles, wheezes may indicate pulmonary congestion secondary to the onset or chronic renal failure.
  4. The presence of pale, cool, moist skin and slow capillary refill time may be related to vasoconstriction or reflect decompensation / decrease in cardiac output.
  5. May indicate heart failure, kidney or vascular damage.
  6. Helps to reduce sympathetic stimulation ; increase relaxation .
  7. Lowering stress and tension which affects blood pressure and hypertensive disease course.
  8. Reduce discomfort and can reduce sympathetic stimulation.
  9. Can reduce stressful stimuli, making a calming effect, thus reducing BP.
  10. Response to drug therapy "stepeed" (consisting of diuretics, sympathetic inhibitors and vasodilators) depends on the individual and synergistic effects of the drug, because of these side effects, it is important to use the drug in the fewest number and lowest doses.
Source : http://list-nanda-nursing-diagnosis.blogspot.com/2014/10/risk-for-decrease-cardiac-output.html



Activity Intolerance related to Hypertensive Heart Disease

Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertensive Heart Disease : Activity Intolerance related to general weakness, imbalance between supply and demand of oxygen.

Goal : The client is able to perform the activity is tolerated.

Outcomes :

  • Participate in activities desired / required.
  • Reported an increase in tolerance activity can be measured.
  • Showed a decrease in physiological signs of intolerance.


Interventions :
  1. Assess the client's response to the activity, attention pulse frequency more than 20 times per minute above the break frequency ; significant increase in BP during / after activity, dyspnea, chest pain ; excessive fatigue and weakness ; diaphoresis ; dizziness or fainting.
  2. Instructed the patient on energy saving techniques, eg ; using the bath seat, sit while combing hair or brushing teeth, doing activities slowly.
  3. Suggest to do the activity / self- phased treatment if tolerated, provide assistance as needed.
Rationale :
  1. Mention parameters help in assessing the physiological response to stress and activity when there is an indicator of excess work -related activity levels.
  2. Energy saving techniques also help reduce the presence of a balance between energy supply and oxygen demand.
  3. Activity progress gradually to prevent sudden increase in cardiac work, provide only limited assistance will need to encourage independence in performing activities.
Source : http://list-nanda-nursing-diagnosis.blogspot.com/2014/10/activity-intolerance-related-to.html


Acute Pain related to Hypertensive Heart Disease

Nursing Diagnosis : Acute Pain : headache related to an increase in cerebral vascular pressure.

Goal : Pain is reduced

Outcomes :

  • Client reported pain / discomfort disappeared / controlled.


Interventions :
  1. Maintaining bed rest during the acute phase.
  2. Give non-pharmacological measures to relieve headaches, for example; cold compress on the forehead, back and neck massage, a quiet, dim room light, relaxation techniques (imagination, distraction ) and leisure time activities.
  3. Eliminate / minimize vasoconstriction activity that can improve headaches, for example; straining during defecation, coughing and bending length.
  4. Assist patients in ambulation as needed.
  5. Give liquids, soft foods, regular oral care in case of nose bleeds or compress the nose has been done to stop the bleeding.
  6. Collaboration of drugs ; analgesic, anti- anxiety.

Rationale : 
  1. Minimizing stimulation / increase relaxation.
  2. Actions that decreases cerebral vascular pressure and the slow / block the sympathetic response is effective in relieving headaches and complications.
  3. Activities that increase vasoconstriction cause headaches in an increase in cerebral vascular pressure.
  4. Dizziness and blurred vision often associated with headache, patients may also experience episodes of postural hypotension.
  5. Increase the general comfort, compress the nose may interfere with the ingestion or require breathing with the mouth, causing stagnation and drying oral secretions of mucous membranes.
  6. Lose / control pain and decrease the sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
  7. Can reduce tension and discomfort aggravated by stress.

Source : http://list-nanda-nursing-diagnosis.blogspot.com/2014/10/acute-pain-related-to-hypertensive.html